Type2 diabetes is one of the growing non-communicable diseases in Vietnam. According to the World Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2017, the United States had 34.2 million people living with diabetes. In particular, most of the patients belong to the type 2 diabetes group.
1. What is type 2 diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Chronic hyperglycemia for a long time causes disorders of carbohydrate, protide, and lipide metabolism, causing damage in many different organs, especially the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nerves.
2. The first mechanism when having first type 2 diabetes
It is insulin resistance, which means your body is not using the insulin properly or the insulin is not functioning properly. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to compensate for it. But over time, your pancreas cannot keep up and doesn’t secrete enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal.
In a simpler way, you can understand that insulin is the bridge that carries the most important food source in the body, glucose, into the cells, helping the cells to produce energy.
When the body is deficient in insulin, sugar is not fully loaded into cells, your cells will immediately go hungry which means the amount of glucose in the blood will increase.
High glucose in the blood will cause many dangerous complications.
3. Common dangerous complications of type 2 diabetes
Chronic hyperglycaemia for a long time causes disorders of carbohydrate, protide, and lipide metabolism, causing damage in many different organs, especially the heart and blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, nerves and teeth. Complications for type 2 diabetes include:
Heart mach complications
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with diabetes. The effects of hyperglycemia can cause coronary artery disease (leading to myocardial infarction) and stroke. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose and other risk factors contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular complications.
Diabetes causes damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys, leading to poor kidney function or kidney failure. Kidney disease is more common in people with diabetes than people without. Maintaining normal blood glucose and blood pressure levels significantly reduces the risk of kidney disease.
Diabetes 2 can cause nerve damage throughout the body when blood glucose and blood pressure are too high. This leads to digestive problems, erectile dysfunction and many other functions.
In the most affected areas are the limbs, especially the feet due to the anatomical structure of the vascular nerve and the human posture is more different than other organs. Nerve damage to this area is called peripheral neuropathy and can lead to pain, itching, and loss of sensation. Loss of sensation is a particularly serious sign because it distracts you from trauma, leading to a serious infection that may require amputation. People with diabetes are at risk of amputation 25 times higher than the average person.
Most people with diabetes will develop certain types of eye disease with impaired vision or blindness. Constantly high blood glucose levels along with high blood pressure and high cholesterol are the main causes of retinopathy. This can be controlled through regular eye exams. Keeps blood glucose levels and blood pressure close to or normal.
Complications during pregnancy
High blood glucose during pregnancy can lead to the fetus being overweight. This can easily lead to traumatic birth complications for the baby and mother; Risk of sudden hypoglycemia in babies after birth; Babies exposed to high blood glucose during pregnancy have a higher risk of future diabetes than other babies.
4. Subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes
The following subjects have a higher than normal risk of developing type2 diabetes:
Family history of someone with diabetes
History of gestational diabetes
Unhealthy diet and activities
Poor nutrition during pregnancy
Less physical activity
Glucose tolerance disorders: Blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not diabetes.
5. Reducing the risk of type2 diabetes, what should we do?
Type 1 diabetes can’t be prevented, unlike type 1 diabetes, but when we change our behavior and lifestyle appropriately, we can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. type 2 diabetes by making lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) tailored to:
Adjust your diet accordingly
The World Diabetes Association has compiled and recommended a healthy diet to prevent diabetes:
Choose water, coffee, or tea over sugary fruit juices, sugary drinks, soft drinks, or other sugary drinks.
Eat at least 3 servings of vegetables per day.
Eat up to 3 servings of fresh fruit per day.
Choose a piece of fresh fruit or sugar-free yogurt for a snack.
Limit alcoholic beverages.
Choose lean white meats, poultry, or seafood over red meat or processed meats.
Choose peanut butter instead of chocolate or jam.
Choose whole wheat bread, rice, or pasta over white bread, rice, or pasta.
Choose unsaturated fats (olive, canola, corn, or sunflower oil) over saturated fats (butter, animal fat, coconut oil, or palm oil).
Need to check for cardiovascular, eye, nerve, and leg deformities before exercising. Do not exercise strenuously when plasma glucose> 250-270 mg / dL and ketones are positive
Walk 150 minutes total per week (30 minutes per day), don’t stop exercising for 2 consecutive days. Every week should do resistance training 2-3 times (lifting weights, ..)
Elderly people, people with joint pain can split exercises several times a day. Young people should practice about 60 minutes per day, at least 3 times a week of resistance training.
Type 2 diabetes is not an infectious disease but is increasing in huge numbers in our country because of the lifestyle associated with urbanization and the lack of information of the people. Through this article, we hope that readers have an overview of type 2 diabetes as well as gain useful knowledge to prevent the disease.
Apply the Diabetes Freedom Strategy in your life and restore your health.